The stadium is an outdoor sports building capable of track and field competitions. It is mainly composed of competition venues, practice venues and checkpoints, auditoriums, auxiliary rooms and facilities. Since the stadium is an open-air competition venue, the floor space is several times to several dozen times larger than the general stadium. For example, the most used project football and track and field venues, the distance between the two goals is 105~110m, and the track field surrounds the football field. Therefore, the stadium is an important part of sports lighting design and complex. It is only required to meet the requirements of athletes for competition and audience viewing, and to meet the requirements of shooting TV and TV broadcasts for color temperature, illumination and uniformity of lighting. This requirement is much higher than the requirements of athletes and audiences. In addition, the lighting method of the lighting fixtures should be closely coordinated with the overall planning of the stadium and the structure of the grandstand. In particular, the maintenance of lighting equipment is closely related to the architectural design and should be considered comprehensively.
The lighting design of the stadium is characterized by large lighting and long distances. Therefore, the venue lighting generally uses high-efficiency floodlights. There are four types of lighting: four-tower, multi-tower, light belt and hybrid. Which method is used depends on the characteristics and structure of the sports building. In the lighting fixture layout, the lighting of the auditorium and the emergency lighting of the playing field should also be considered to ensure safe evacuation.
In the case of AC power supply, athletes will have a stroboscopic effect when viewing a high-speed moving sphere, especially when the speed of movement is high; at the same time, TV broadcast will be greatly affected. For this purpose, the floodlight should be powered by a three-phase power supply. When the three-phase power supply is connected, the number of lights connected to each phase is equal, and the light emitted from the light bulbs of different phases is overlapped in the motion field, and the stroboscopic effect can be eliminated.
Track and field competitions generally set up high jump, long jump, pole vault, throw and football in the center. The venue is surrounded by runways. The standard runs to 400m, and stands on either side of the site or on one side. There are generally three ways to install the lighting of the track and field: installation on the pole, installation on the tower and installation of the luminaire using the structure of the stadium itself. For pole-mounted and tower-mounted installations, the pole or lighthouse is at least 1m away from the outer edge of the runway to prevent athletes from being injured by impact. The height of the pole or lighthouse is about 45m. The proper installation height is crucial for controlling the glare in the stadium and reducing the spillage outside the field. The best result is to ensure that the glare index GR is less than 50.
According to the FIFA, the length of the football field is 105m to 110m and the width is 68m to 75m. There should be no obstacles at least 5m outside the bottom line and the side of the line to ensure the safety of the athletes. There are two basic layouts for the site lighting: four-corner arrangement (the luminaire is mounted on the high tower near the diagonal extension of the course), and the installation location of the four-corner lighthouse is set at 5:00 on the sideline and 15 degrees from the bottom line. The height is calculated as follows: h=dtgφ, h=the height of the lighthouse; d=the distance from the kickoff point of the court to the lighthouse; the angle between the kickoff point of the stadium and the bottom and the top of the lighthouse, requiring more than 25 degrees; The installation to the luminaires is relatively low and the luminaires are located on either side of the course. The lateral arrangement can be subdivided into two ways: multi-tower (rod) installation, 2, 3 or 4 towers (rods) on the side of the court; light belt installation, lamps installed on the ceiling or on the road, lighting and formation of the stadium A strip of light parallel to the edges.