The commonly used lighting methods in sports venues are mainly in the following ways: outdoor sports ground, light pole type, four tower type, multi tower type, light belt type, light belt and lighthouse hybrid type; indoor sports ground, uniform type (Starry style), light belt type (over the field and over the field), mixed.
Four tower layout:
Four lighthouses are set at the four corners of the site. The tower height is generally 25 to 50 m, and narrow beam lamps are commonly used. This arrangement is suitable for soccer fields without runways, low lighting utilization, difficult maintenance and repair, and high cost. If the quality of the lighting is not excessively demanding, it can meet the general requirements of athletes and audiences. The proper location of the lighthouse creates a suitable illumination distribution on the field by using a variety of different beam angle projections. But today, movies and televisions require high and uniform vertical illumination, requiring that the angle of light incident on the farther portion of the field is much less than the prescribed limit. The effect of the higher brightness obtained with large gas discharge lamps, combined with the traditional tower height, inevitably produces excessive glare. The shortcoming of this four-tower lamp form is that the visual changes in different viewing directions are larger and the shadows are deeper. From the perspective of color TV broadcast, it is more difficult to control the vertical illumination in all directions and to control the glare. In order to meet the Ev/Eh 44 value requirement and less glare, it is necessary to take some improvement measures for the four-tower lighting method:
(1) Move the position of the four towers to the sides and the side of the line so that the opposite side of the field and the four corners can obtain a certain vertical illumination;
(2) increase the number of floodlights on the lighthouse on the side of the main camera of the TV to enhance the beam projection;
(3) Supplement the light strip illumination on the top of the viewing platform on the side of the main camera of the TV. Pay attention to controlling the glare and should not make the audience at both ends of the venue
This type of lamp is used to set up a group of lighthouses (or light poles) on both sides of the site, suitable for practice sites such as football, volleyball, tennis courts, etc. Its outstanding advantage is that the electricity consumption is relatively low, and the vertical illumination and the horizontal illumination are better. Due to the low pole, this arrangement has the advantages of low investment and convenient maintenance.
The poles should be evenly arranged, and 6 or 8 towers can be arranged. The height of the pole should not be lower than 12m, the projection angle should be between 15° and 25°, and the projection angle to the sideline of the site should not exceed 75° at the maximum, and the minimum is not less than 45°. . Generally, the medium beam and the wide beam floodlight are used. If there is a spectator stand, the aiming point arrangement work should be very detailed. The disadvantage of this type of cloth is that it is more difficult to block the viewer's line of sight when the pole is placed between the field and the auditorium. In the football field without television broadcast, the lateral arrangement lighting device adopts multi-tower arrangement, and does not adopt the optical belt arrangement. The lighthouse is usually placed on both sides of the game. In general, the height of the lighthouse of the multi-tower light can be lower than that of the four corners. The multi-tower is arranged with four towers, six towers and eight towers. In order to avoid the line-of-sight interference of the goalkeeper, the midpoint of the goal line is used as the reference point, and the lighthouse cannot be arranged within at least 10 m on both sides of the bottom line. The height of the lighthouse of the multi-tower light is calculated. The triangle is calculated perpendicular to the course, parallel to the bottom line, ≥25°, and the height of the lighthouse is h≥15m.
Optical belt layout:
The lamps are arranged in rows on both sides of the court to form a continuous light strip illumination system. Its illumination uniformity, the brightness between the athlete and the stadium is better. At present, this kind of lighting method is recognized in the world to meet the various requirements of color television broadcasting for lighting. The length of the light belt is more than 10m above the goal line (for example, the sports field with the runway, the length of the light belt is preferably not less than 180m) to ensure that the goal area has sufficient vertical illumination from the back. At this point, the projection angle can be reduced to about 20°. If a low-brightness illuminator is used, it can be further reduced to about 15°. Some stadium lights are very close to the sideline of the site (the angle is above 65°), and the vertical edge of the site cannot be obtained. This will increase the “retracted” supplemental illumination.
In general, the optical belt arrangement uses a combination of several different beam angles for projection, a narrow beam for long shots and a medium beam for near projection. The shortcomings of the optical belt arrangement: the technique for controlling glare is strict, and the physical feeling of the object is slightly poor.
The hybrid arrangement is a new type of lighting method that combines a four- or multi-tower arrangement with an optical belt arrangement. It is currently a large-scale comprehensive stadium in the world to solve the lighting technology and lighting effect is a better form of cloth lighting. The mixed arrangement absorbs the advantages of the two types of lamps to enhance the sense of solidity, and the vertical illumination and uniformity in the four directions are more reasonable, but the degree of glare is increased. At this time, the four towers are not set up independently, but are combined with the buildings, and the cost is relatively low.
The floodlights used in the four towers are mostly narrow beams, which solve the long-range shot; the light belts are mostly medium beams, which solve the near-projection. Due to the mixed arrangement, the projection angle and azimuth arrangement of the four towers can be flexibly processed, the length of the light strip arrangement can be appropriately shortened, and the height of the light strip can be appropriately reduced.
Civil construction and installation:
The civil works of the stadium are closely related to the entire lighting scheme. When there is no shed or lack of arranging in the audience, it is necessary to consider the installation of a separate light bridge. Whether or not to use four-tower lamps, the urban planning department must also be consulted, and the four-tower and multi-tower lighting patterns are closely related to the overall artistic effect of the building. Whether using four-tower, multi-tower, light-belt or hybrid layout, the installation, maintenance and overhaul of the luminaires must be considered at the selection stage.
At present, many stadiums in the world use lighthouses, mostly three steel pipes or multiple steel pipe combination lighthouses, as well as variable-section reinforced concrete and inclined reinforced concrete lighthouses.